Thursday, 8 June 2023 г. 01:06 Make home page | Bookmark site | RSS Feedback | RUSSIAN
ИА «Тува-Онлайн»
» » Internet and SMS voting for “Nine Treasures of Tuva” will take place from December 1 to December 10.
Personal office
Lost password?

«    November 2010    »
электронный журнал "Новые исследования Тувы"

Internet and SMS voting for “Nine Treasures of Tuva” will take place from December 1 to December 10.

Today in Government House a press-conference took place, where the journalists were told about the next, the most significant stage of  the special project “Tos Ertine” (Nine Treasures) - the popular voting for the nine most important noteworthy attractions of the republic, which will take place on December 1-10. The 45 entries, which were selected by the Expert Council for the final vote were introduced to those present.

Initially it was planned to select 30 objects from the 110 entries; during the hot discussions and arguments among the scholars, tour companies and members of the Expert Council it was impossible to reach agreement on the “30”, and instead it was decided to keep 45 entries for the final voting which had the most votes by experts.

The journalists were shown the testing system for voting, which will be used on the project site, and the rules of  SMS voting were explained.

On December 1-10, every resident of Tuva will be able to vote daily for his selected “9“ out of the submitted 45 entries. The contribution of the journalists was to show the “portrait” of the entry in more complete way; twelve press-tours were organized during the summer.

“I traveled extensively in Tuva, visited all the municipal institutions in the course of my work, but only on the press-tours was I finally able to see the beauty of our republic, to find out about its astonishing places, - Galina Murygina,  “Tuvinskaya Pravda” correspondent, told her colleagues. - I wish very much for the continuation of this project. We learned so many new things during these trips, so we would like to continue these travels next summer. To see that huge chan in which you can cook several horses at the same time, which, according to the old-timers of Chedi-Khol is lying in the taiga 50 km from arzhaan Khuregechi. Or Mt. Buura in Ulug-Khem with the remains of a huge raft! There are still so many mysteries in Tuva. I would like to participate in solving them!”

Anna Lama, GTRK “Tyva” correspondent pointed out: “ Choosing the “Nine”, it is  necessary not to get stuck in your own district, but it is necessary to think about the things without which Tuva would be unthinkable, about its symbols; for me, for example it is Mongun-Taiga, the Scythian gold, obelisk “Center of Asia”, khoomei...”


List of 45 entries for voting

  1. Mountain Ak-Khaiyrakan with Moren cave. In translation it means a Bear shrine. There is a cave in the sacred mountain with stalaktites and stalagmites about 80 meters long. Many centuries ago it served as a living place for a Kyrgys clan group. Famous healing arzhaan consisting of three springs spouting one above the other is located on the south slope of the mountain.
  2. Arzhaan Azhyg-Sug. Advanced young people call the results of cure by the acid waters of this spring “Formatting” of the gastrointestinal tract. Those who undergo this therapy pass gravel (from bladders), their color improves, skin becomes purified. The balneologic effect of the arzhaan is caused by its ionic-salt composition content of quartz acids, ions of iron and other microelements.
  3. Lake Azas. The largest lake of the Todzha valley, astonishing in its beauty, and the only one where white water lilies grow. The lake has 9 islands. All the beauty, riches and variety of the botanical world of Todzha is concentrated on the smallest island - Kuba. The tiny place holds multiple plants listed in the Red Book - Daur rhododendron, sharp-leaved rose, and spotty slipper, which blooms only once in 16 years…
  4. Mountain Bai-taiga.  Bai-Taiga means rich taiga”.  Every year  about 3000 men gather for the ritual of sanctification of the mountain according to old beliefs, the Master of the entire Tuva, Sangba Norulkha Burgan, lives on its mountaintop, and flies over his realm on a white partridge “aganak”, hearing and seeing everything. The sacred Bai-taiga is the world of this deity. The people explain the competence, ability to work, and the artistic talents of Bai-taiga men by the proximity of this mountain.
  5. Complex Bizhiktig-Khaya, stone statue of Genghis Khan.  straight walls of the cliff are completely covered with petroglyphs - a huge griffon, faces-masks, deer, bulls, mountain goats, a caravan of cargo animals, a warrior in a hat or helmet, merchants in eastern costumes ( picture is of a ceremony of a  the merchants’ arrival)… the drawings were made during several generations following one another. Nearby in the steppe, there is an ancient stone warrior. They call him Genghis Khan. Mighty wide shoulders, confident and somewhat superior facial expression, eyes, looking straight at you… but he precedes the Great Mongol. The Tuvan monument is 1500 years old.
  6. Buddhist niche.  This unique monument of  13th Century Buddhist art can now be seen only once a year - when the waters are released from the Sayano-Shushenskoye water reservoir. All the rest of the time, the Sume niche carved in the rock is under water. The master hand of an ancient craftsman carved a bas-relief of Buddha and two bodhisattvas in menacing poses on its grey stone back wall. On the Buddha’s left and right side, there are silhouettes of his faithful guardians.
  7. Mountain Dogee.   Sacred mountain which represents a complicated cultic complex of kurgan burials and monuments of petroglyphic art, which turned into a Buddhist shrine. Already after the perestroika, the mantra “Om mani padme hum” was arranged of white stones on the slopes, which was the largest in the world and visible from any point in Kyzyl. It is believed that ascent to the top of this mountain elevates the spirit and helps get rid of bad thoughts. Lately, mass sports runs to the top of the mountain have become popular, as well as community and political actions.
  8. Archeological complex “Valley of the Czars”.  the steppe in the area of the settlement Arzhaan is covered with hundreds of kurgans of Scythian nobles. Excavations from years 1971 - 1974 of a remarkable colossal kurgan (120 meters in diameter, 3-4 meters high) caused tremendous scientific resonance. The burial of a Scythian king and queen found in 2001 nearby, in full gold regalia, was acclaimed by experts as the main archeological sensation of 21st Century. These finds confirmed the hypothesis of Herodotus about the Asian origin of the Scythians, as opposed to the Black Sea hypothesis prevalent before.
  9. Lake Dus-Khol. the water composition of Dus-Khol has often been compared to that of the Dead Sea. People come here to enjoy the “desert zone” in miniature, to lay about in hot sand. Two weeks of vacation at this lake - and all year you can forget about getting colds. Mud baths are used for therapy of musculoskeletal system problems, of the spine, bones, peripheral and central nervous system, vascular system. Gynecological diseases, early stages of hypertension, and hemorrhoids.
  10. Durgen Canyon.  Durgen Canyon and the picturesque waterfall are completely accessible to tourists despite all their taiga wildness. It is only a few hundred meters from a roadway. The ravine is  20 - 40 meters high in different places. The name of the river Durgen, which flows at the bottom of the ravine is associated with Genghis Khan by the locals, when he was on the way to conquer the forest peoples. A parade of  the Khan’s heavy carts passed over the mountain ridge, and with their wheels created the canyon. The conqueror’s young wife was accompanying him on his difficult journey; she was pregnant and labor pains started on the way. The Great Mongol’s right hand, Subedei, hurried the people: “Durgen! Durgen!”  (Faster!) and the small river inherited this name.
  11. River Yenisei.  In Tuva, Yenisei is called Ulug-Khem, the Great River. And really, it is the largest water-bearing river in Russia, which pours about 20 thousand cubic meters of water into the ocean every second. The ancient Turkic name, Ene-sai, means Mother-River. Yenisei originates from two tributaries - Kaa-Khem and Bii-Khem; the capital of Tuva, Kyzyl, is located at their confluence. Here, on the banks of Yenisei, is also the geographic center of Asia, marked by a stele - obelisk “Center of Asia”.
  12. Lake Kara-Khol with waterfall.  Beautiful, seductive, and at the same time suggestive of danger, that is the lake Kara-Khol with its vertical rocky cliffs. The water appears dark like ink, which is the source of its name. A waterfall murmurs on one of its shores, which is as tall as a two-story house. The pure mountain river Alash originates in lake Kara-Khol many ancient kurgans are located in its valley; there are whole fields of ancient battlegrounds, which is documented to this day by rows of  stone balbals, which were raised according to the numbers of defeated enemies.
  13. Lake Kak. Lake Kak is a popular place for cures and vacations, located on a very beautiful plateau between two mountains. The composition of the water and medicinal mud is like at Cheder Lake. There are many springs with composition of water similar to arzhaans Khuregechi and Bady-Tsagaan. Aside from the medicinal waters, the people use the mud and…the leeches.  it is said that after such procedures even infertile women bear children.
  14. Mountain Kezhege.  Unique “Stone town”, sacred clan mountain is formed in a circle. Among the vertical cliffs a gate is hidden, which leads to a spacious green meadow. Another fissure represents an entrance into a  next hall, with a stone altar for offerings. It is believed that the mountain fulfills wishes. According to rumors, this is where treasures are hidden from Erzin khuree destroyed during the revolution.
  15. Kyzyl-El canyon. The Ulug-Khem canyon “Kyzyl-El” with colored vertical cliffs of wondrous forms of red sandstone and stones holds a glacier at its bottom even in a 40 degree (centigrade) heat. Geologists believe that it was formed as a result of a tectonic fracture, but the locals believe it was produced by a falling meteorite. There are several other hypotheses: the Chinese were searching fro Genghis-Khan’s grave, dug up a kurgan, and it suddenly turned into the canyon. Another version says that after the burial of the Great Mongol, to confuse the searchers for Genghis-Khan’s grave, the course of the river was diverted to hide the place and the river produced the canyon.
  16. River Kyzyl-Khem. River Kyzyl-Khem is considered not just the most beautiful river in Eastern Siberia, but also the most attractive fro water sports and fishermen. It originates in Mongolia and there its name is Shishid-Gol; as it transit’s the Tuvan border, its name changes to Kyzyl-Khem. The aficionados of extreme sports are especially interested in rafting down the rapids, which are plentiful here. Aside from the fantastic white-water rafting, tourists can also learn about the ancient way of life of the Old Believers, who live in the river’s upper reaches.
  17. Mountain Mongun-Taiga. South-East part of Tuva, bordering on Mongolia, is cut off from the world by tall mountain ridges. In the center of this fantastic amphitheatre  stands the sacred mountain Mongun-Taiga, or Silver Taiga. Its top is the highest point of Eastern Siberia. It is wreathed by a glittering glacier dome, which towers to 3976 meters. These mountain-steppe landscapes are the home of  the mysterious, wily irbis - the snow leopard.
  18. Mugur-Sargol petroglyphs. Bronze Age petroglyphs are represented in Mugur-Sargol by huge numbers of faces-masks, drawings of  carts and wild hoofed animals - altogether about 250 drawings. In their artistic value they are comparable to the best of the world’s rock art. These petroglyphs were to be submerged under the waters of Sayan-Shushenskoye sea, but 50 stone plaques were saved and taken to Kyzyl. Geologists, scholars, as well as herdsmen participated in the rescue operation which preserved this unique ancient art for posterity.
  19. National holidays Naadym and Shagaa.  Bright, beautiful holidays, for  the celebration of which thousands of participants and spectators gather. During Naadym, the herdsmen are honored, who are the mainstay workers of animal herding Tuva. The holiday program consists of traditional masculine skills and entertainments of Central Asian nomads - horse races, competitions in national wrestling Khuresh, archery, and competitions in arkan throwing (lasso).  The most exciting is the saddling of a wild untamed horse. The holiday changes its location every year; it is hosted by the district with the best indices of the year.       The night before Shagaa - the New Year by the Lunar Calendar - people do not sleep, because good fortune would leave them next year. They spend the night in traditional games, visits to Buddhist temples. With the coming of Shagaa, celebrations are held. It is a bright holiday, during which one can learn about many folk customs and traditions.
  20. Ancient Uighur fortress-palace Por-Bazhyn.  The ‘Clay House” - an island fortress, was built in 8th Century the gate, fortified towers - palaces and monasteries around the perimeter with ceremonial brick staircases and a roof supported by 36 wooden pillars standing on flagstones in the center. During major multidisciplinary archeological excavations, organized by the initiative of a native of Tuva, Minister of Emergencies of Russia, Sergei Shoigu, minimal traces of life were found. Among the possible reasons why the fortress was abandoned, are permafrost, on which the island is standing. A glacier is a capricious substance. One wrong move, and irreversible processes of fast melting will start, and the island may float like Atlantis. A legend connects the palace with the name of a chi9nese princess Nin-Go.
  21. Mountain Saryg-Khaya and village Kyzyl-Dag. “Yellow Mountain” near  Kyzyl-Dag village holds reserves of agalmatolit or chonar-dash,  soft stone, as it is called in Tuva. It is the main material used by stone carvers. Astonishing stone figures are born from it, and many museums of the world are proud of their collections of them. They are the trademark of a folk applied art of Tuva. And the Kyzyl-Dag village is the center of the craftsmen-artists. Kyzyl-Dag middle school is an experimental area for the rebirth of traditional Tuvan crafts.
  22. Scythian gold at the National Museum of RT. the collection of unique gold adornments of Scythian nobility, discovered by archeologists in the Valley of Czars, is three thousand years old. The costumes of the royal guard, over-sewn with miniature gold plaques, gold head-dresses, hairpins, pendants and necklaces of gold, turquoise, carnelian, amber, the chief’s massive gold pectoral… the hand of Scythian master-craftsman was able to braid and weave into these artifacts ornate patterns of horses, deer, panthers. All of these are real masterpieces of the goldsmith art, which today, despite the contemporary technological development, can be reproduced by only very few.
  23. The snow leopard.  Tuva is the chief area of habitation of the Snow Leopard - Irbis - The Master of The Mountaintops, who has no equal in endurance or in strength. He hides from human eyes, lives where Earth meets the Heaven, where the “hats” of great glaciers never melt. The Master of the Mountains has always been honored in Tuva and supernatural abilities were ascribed to him the image of the snow leopard is found in Tuvan epics and tales, stories and songs. He is depicted on jewellery decorations, which were found in ancient kurgans.
  24. Old Believers. The Old Believers, persecuted by the authorities of Russia, acme to Tuva at the end of 19th Century.  They represented about 1/3 of all the Russian settlers, who set out in search of better conditions of life to the Center of Asia. The Old Believers settled in the area of Upper Yenisei, today’s Kaa-Khem and Todzha districts. Cut off from “Greater Russia” they became the main keepers of the original root Russian culture - in faith, rituals, customs, way of life; they are protective  of all traditional, old ways, and are very cautious towards innovations. The ensemble “Oktay”, during several ethnographic expeditions to Old Believer settlements, successfully collected and recorded examples of ancient Russian folklore.
  25. Lake Sut-Khol.  The “Milk Lake” looks like a chalice of water high in the mountains. Tuvan folk stories begin with reminders of the legendary lake - “Long, long time ago, when lake Sut-Khol was only a tiny puddle…” anybody who came here once remembers it forever. Wondrous peninsulas, wild cliffs, white clouds reflecting in the waters like in a mirror. In early morning hours Sut-Khol glows like molten silver. There is a belief that the “milk lake” gives the men unusual strength and endurance.
  26. Mountain Syyn-Churee. A lone, not very large mountain Syyn-Churee (Heart of a maral) on the Kyzyl-Chadan route is believed by old-timers to be the heart of all the mountain ridges of Tuva. The form is reminiscent of a pyramid, and on its cliffs there are about 300 chipped drawings from different epochs, starting with the Bronze Age: pictures of tigers, horses, goats, antelopes, people, also horned images and solar symbols. Many caves are on the top of the mountain. At the eastern slope is a huge cemetery of kurgans.
  27. Arzhaan Tarys. One of the most inaccessible arzhaans of Tuva, it is called the South Arzhaan. Hot springs spout at the elevation of 1700-200 meters. There are 18 of them. The temperature varies from 12 to 46 degrees centigrade. The waters, according to study data, are alkaline, with silica and sulfate-sodium.  Tiny wooden “houses” are built over 14 of the springs. Each has its purpose - for healing eyes, musculo-skeletal system, etc. every year, a whole tent city sprouts at Tarys. The population can reach 2000.
  28. Teve-Khaya, the encampment of  Tuvan ambyn-noyons. The rock Teve-Khaya looks amazingly like a camel lying down. This is where the history of Tuvan ambyn-noyons takes its beginning. This is where the plans for the future Tuvan State began. In 1763, the encampment of Tuvan ambyn-noyons was founded. In ten years, the Samagaltai Khuree was built, which became the spiritual residence of the Kamby-Lama of Tuva.
  29. Monuments of Ancient Turkic writing. Stone stelae with carved runic writing of “funerary poetry” tell stories of the road of life of ancient military leaders.  They were raised on the territory of Sayan-Altai mountain chain during the period of Turkic Khanate in 8th - 12th Centuries. The largest concentration of more that 100 stelae was discovered in Tuva. Ancient Turkic script is the key to the unknown pages of our history. Thanks to them, turkologists were first able to determine ethnic names and areas of settlement of Tuvan tribes.
  30. Ubsunur depression, lake Tere-Khol. A small model of the Earth’s biosphere, where on a comparatively small territory nature created an original “parade of landscapes”. in one day, you can see here  sandy deserts, steppes with tall grasses grading into forest-steppe, dry and marshy tundras on mountaintops, deciduous forest and mountains covered with eternal snow. Lake Tere-Khol lies on the Mongolian border, with sand dunes up to 12 meters high. At the entrance to the lake - “the stirrup”, we are met by Mt. Kara-Khaya with scale-like weather-worn cliffs. Ubsunur depression is  in the UNESCO World Natural Heritage site list.
  31. Paleolithic camp - temple of the sun- “Ulug-Khorum”. Excavations of this largest in dimension kurgan allowed scientists to come to the conclusion that this was not a burial but a cultic structure - Temple of the Sun of the ancient nomads. The Salgyn “Ulug-Khorum” is a giant circle with 32 “rays” which is suggestive of the sun, spread out in the steppe. The entire area of this solar temple is 3700 square meters.
  32. Buddhist temple Ustuu-Khuree”.  Upper Chadan Khuree is a unique monument of Buddhist architecture. It was built after Tibetan plan in 1902-1907, and became a center of religion and enlightenment in Tuva. In 1937 the temple was destroyed by revolutionary authorities, and the lamas were repressed. In 1984 “Ustuu-Khuree” received the status of a monument of architecture of republic significance and was put under the protection of the government. It was recognized as the only monument in USSR preserving Tibetan style of temple architecture. Thanks to support by Sergei Shoigu, next to the ruins of the temple, kept for the edification of descendants, an exact copy of “Ustuu-Khuree” has been built.
  33. Mountain Uttug-Khaya. “The rock with holes” on the way to the statue of ancient warrior is believed to be a “mountain of wish-fulfillment” by some, while others believe it is a “Genghis-Khan’s watchtower”. not fat from the top there is a natural passage from eastern to western side of the mountain. When the sun is frying everything outside, it is chilly in the stone gallery. And in the center of the passage is a narrow tunnel to the south side. Whoever can crawl through gets a “aas-kezhik” - blessings of the mountain, and his wishes will come true.  He literally crawled through the birth canal as if he was born again.
  34. The arzhaans of Ush-Beldir Spa.  A thermal sanatorium also called the Northern Arzhaan, is located 100 km north of Tarys, at the confluence of three rives, tributaries of Yenisei: Belin, Bus and Shishid-Gol. That is where the name Ush-Beldir comes fro - it means Triple Confluence. The mountain climate and unique landscape combine the features of Caucasus, Western Siberia and Switzerland; strong therapeutic properties of the local springs have returned their health to hundreds of people. Women grow younger here without creams and masks.
  35. Mountain Khaiyrykan. Mountain-Bear is one of the most sacred and respected sites in Tuva. Tall, ash-colored sharply delineated cliffs attract the eyes. Ld-timers tell legends full of mysticism about the mountain. Tuvan shamans traditionally come here to perform rituals. In 1992, the Dalai-Lama XIV, visiting the republic, noted the strong energetics of the mountain. At the foot of Khaiyrykan stands a suburgan built in memory of the fact that the hierarch of world Buddhism visited this place.
  36. Lake Khindiktig-Khol. Lake with a navel-that is the translation of the name. it is a huge reservoir with the purest water; it is because of its glacial origin. It is located at the elevation of 2305 meters, and there is an island in the center - the navel which gave the lake its name. the people of Mongun-Taiga are quite proud of the purity of the lake “The cleanest in the world”, as local fishermen believe, whose main goal is the local kharius (salmon-like fish).
  37. Khoomei. Astonishing gift of nature - ability to produce several sounds at the same time - a base tone with a superimposed second and third melodic tone which gives the effect of one-man orchestra. The performer’s entire body functions as a musical instrument. Tuvan shamans use khoomei in healing. Throat-singing is an universal language which the nomads of Central Asia use to communicate with the surrounding nature. Tuvan khoomeizhi have an entire army of fans all over the world.
  38. Obelisk Center of Asia. The most popular symbol of Tuva and Kyzyl. History tells about an eccentric Englishman, who traveled at the end of 19th Century throughout the world with only one idea- to put a stone with inscription in the center of  every continent - “I was here on such and such day” and signature. At the beginning of 20th Century this stone was seen in the area of Todzha village Saldam, then in the shape of a smallish cement pedestal with inscription “Center of Asia” was put on the bank of Yenisei in Kyzyl. In 1964 it was exchanged for the well-known stele, with which all the tourists want to be photographed.
  39. Lake Chagytai. The deepest and largest fresh-water lake in Tuva. Chagytai was the name of Genghis-Khan’s son, and for that reason a large number of legends about the great warrior is associated with the lake. One of them insists that the lake is the place where the Great Mongol was buried; his grave has not been found to this day. Scientists who are not inclined to believe in legends think that the name is from Mongolian word “zagastai”, which means “fishy”. the lake really is rich in fish.
  40. Locality Chalama..  A heart-shaped sacred stone, a boulder 9 meters tall, an unusual natural formation located in a very picturesque place. It is thought that the stone has incredibly large energetic power. Local people worship Chalama from time immemorial and receive immense energetic charge.
  41. Charash-Dash. Charash-Dash (beautiful stone) is a mysterious wonder of nature. In a place difficult to reach on the bank of a small taiga river , pebbles show up of unusual forms, as if they were tossed to the surface of the earth from some underground workshop. The stones  appear at certain times of the year.  The forms can look like a woman milking a cow, a horse rider national heraldic sign, various animals.
  42. Lake Cheder.  The magic power of lake Cheder which gives joys of motherhood to those who have lost hope is well known far beyond the borders of Tuva. The lake mud contains acid salts and sulfur and hydrogen compounds which have strong healing properties - they cure skin, joint, bone, neurological and gynecological diseases. The oldest Tuvan balneologic spa  “Cheder”, which is approaching its 80th anniversary, is now a contemporary sanatorium and works year-round.
  43. Arzhaan Choigan. “Gives eternal youth” - that is what the locals say about arzhaan Choigan. Deep rejuvenating waters of magmatic origin contain carbon dioxide gas a true antidote against aging. The water removes from blood the “mineral of death”, cleans the internal walls of blood vessels, and leaves them clean, elastic and patent. It is effective in diseases of respiratory and digestive organs of liver and bile ducts, in chronic pancreatitis and disturbances of  metabolism. Could it be that the people of Todzha, who are always visiting this spring, look so young and are so long-lived?
  44. Tuvan shamanism. Shamanism  is one of the most ancient forms of religious belief, which postulates the existence of spirits inhabiting mountains, forests, waters, heaven and the lower world. The shaman acts as an intermediary  in interactions between humans and the world of the spirits. Tuva is one of the few corners of the world where shamanism was preserved in its original form. The republic attracts hundreds of followers of shamanism every year from many different countries. They nourish themselves with the energy of Tuvan land, they take lessons in shamanic practices.
  45. Arzhaan Shivilig.  From Times immemorial, the healing spring Shivilig has been one of the most popular natural sanatoriums  for local people. As soon as the weather warms up, both old and young come here for their health. The water of the springs is burning cold, the temperature is -2 and -6 degrees centigrade, and ultra- desalinated.  The arzhaan is weakly radonic; sufficient amount of  silica acids give the water anti-inflammatory properties, and organic carbon augments the healing effect in urological diseases. Since 2010, beside a “semi-wild” tent variant for  a course of folk therapy, a well-organized variant with cottages is also offered.


Voting rules


  1. At the site, you have to select 9 out of the 45 noteworthy attractions on the list, and check off the corresponding window. You can vote once every day form one computer. In real time, you will be able to see the leaders of the popular vote.
  2. If using SMS, you have to send a message to the short number 4647, which starts with Tos, then a space, and the numbers of selected entries with spaces in between them. The cost of one SMS message is 5 rubles 31 kop.

Anna Khadakhane, translated by Heda Jindrak
New comments for news item are allowed for 365 days after publication.
Event announces

Top read

    © 2001–2023, "Tuva-Online" News & Information Agency    
    advertising with Tuva-Online
    All rights reserved.
    Republishing, redistributing or syndicating without direct reference to Tuva-Online is prohibited.
    Quotes on Internet-sites are allowed only with hyperlink to
    Founded on August 15, 2001
    Registered in the Ministry for press of Russian Federation.
    Certificate Эл №77-6060 issued on February 22, 2002
    Rambler's Top100 Яндекс цитирования