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электронный журнал "Новые исследования Тувы"

Almost 2000 people in Tuva suffered in 1930-1950 from political repressions

Almost 2000 people in Tuva suffered in 1930-1950 from political repressionsA meeting dedicated to the victims of political repressions was held today by the Monument of the Undefeated Arat in the capital of Tuva. 10-20 meters from the monument, there is a one-story grey wooden building, which today contains a museum of political repressions. Its history is closely related to this tragic page in the history of Tuva. In the basement of this house, by the burning-hot stove, confessions were extracted from the accused.

Altogether, according to the data collected by the scholars, 1036 people were sentenced in Tuva in association with the repressions, and 132 of them were given the maximum punishment. In the neighboring Mongolia, 25785 people were sentenced in 1937-39, out of which 20039 were shot.

In his article “Son of his Time”, the historian Mongush Baiyr-ool told about the matter of the “Chyrmit-Tazhyntsi”. The article was published in the electronic journal “New Research of Tuva”.

“During the 30’s, there was both a secret and an open conflict between the “left” Stalinists (S.Toka, I.Shagdyrzhap, T.Sedip-ool, Sat (Kamova), N.Tovarishchtai, O. Baiyr, O.Polat), and the “right” conservatives (S. Churmit-dazhy, A-T. Khemchik-ool, O.Danchai, K.Birinlei, S.Lopsan, O. Sengiizhik, K.Sungar-ool). The representatives of the “leftist” wing fought for the building of socialism in a country of nomads without regard for the traditional-cultural economic subsistence base and the psychology of nomads, through the liquidation of property of well-to-do classes of the population and forcible establishment of kolkhozes, for revolutionary change in the way of life.

The “rightist” conservatives were for preservation of the traditional ways of subsistence and culture, for an evolutionary development of the country of nomads. The opposition of the two sides ended in tragedy – extraordinary government decree, a sentence without trial to execute by shooting the former leaders of the government of TNR.

Their names:

-Sat Sanaa-Shiri oglu Churmit-Dazhy, born 1894 in Chadaana summon, the chairman of the Soviet of Ministers of TNR until his arrest.

-Adyg-Tulush Oldukai oglu Khemchik-ool, born in 1893 in Iyi-Tal summon of Ulug-Khem kozhuun of TNR, until his arrest he was the chairman of the Presidium of the Small Khural of TNR.

-Oyun Chyrandai oglu Danchai, born 1893 in Mezhegei summon of TAR, chairman of administration of Tuvinbank until his arrest.

-Kara-Sal Oruma oglu Birinlei, born 1906 in Khaiyrakan summon of Dzun-Khemchik kozhuun, District Attorney of TNR from 1935, worked at the Supreme Court of TNR.

-Sat Bazyr-ool oglu Lopsan, born 1908 in Khondergei summon of Dzun-Khemchik kozhuun, Minister of industry and trade of TNR until his arrest.

-Oyun Danchai oglu Sengiizhik, born in 1900 in Mezhegei summon of Tandy kozhuun, chief of administration of internal political security from 1928, vice-District Attorney of TNR.

- Kuular Tovunak oglu Sungar-ool, born in 1908 in Solchur summon of Ovyur kozhuun, worked as emissary of TNR to MNR (Mongolia), student of KUTV until his arrest.

On October 16, 1938, the death sentence was carried out at the foot of Mt. Kherbis.

By the decision of the Collegium for criminal activities of the Supreme Court of RSFSR from September 1964, the sentence without trial by the extraordinary judicial collegium of Supreme Court of TNR from Oct.13, 1938, because the sentence of the leaders of the government of TNR was reached in the absence of description of the nature of the crime, these honest people were rehabilitated.

The Moscow historian N. Moskalenko, among the documents of “National Archive” of the Russian State University of Humanities, managed to discover a document that was never made public before, which gave evidence that during the political repressions in TNR, the decisive role was played by the soviet advisers in the militia of the republic, and, first and foremost, the political supervisor of USSR in TNR, I.T. Mulyukin.

This note, dated June 17, 1958, issued by I.P.Rogovyi, a responsible worker of the soviet security organs in TNR, specifies that Mulyukin is to receive special privileges.

It states that: “During the period of work from 1938 to 1940 in the former TNR, comrade Mulyukin, Ivan Terentievich, as the political supervisor from USSR to TNR, showed special help to me as adviser and to the instructors of the Ministry of Interior of TNR. He led our work in the fight against the counter-revolution in the TNR.

In 1938, we together discovered and liquidated a counter-revolutionary pro-Japanese organization, led by the former chairman of the Soviet ministry of TNR – Churmit-Tazhi. The special merit of comrade Mulyukin consists of his immediate leadership in the matter of reporting our evidence and documentation in this matter.”

After the liquidation of the leaders of the administration of TNR, gradually the authority of the personality of S. Toka became established. “…exactly at 5 pm. On October 17, 1938, the entire population of Kyzyl organized in working teams, with raised red flags, with songs and feeling of joy, went to Shagdyr-Syuryun’s club and immediately the place was filled up. Among the group were: chairman of the presidium of Central Committee of TNRP, beloved leader of the Tuvan nation – comrade S. Toka, and with him Polat, Tovarishchtai, Sedip-ool, Uvangur, Shoma, Badyraa, Kyzyl-ool, Sambuu, Bazyr-Sat and others. The Second meeting of all the population was opened by a speech by the chairman of the city self-administration, Lopsan-Sambuu.

The chairman of the presidium of the CK TNRP, the one closest to the heart, the most beloved, most faithful leader of the Tuvan nation, comrade Toka, greeted those gathered in the name of the party and the government. As the chairman made the announcement, the entire hall exploded in standing applause, calling “Long live comrade Toka!” and the orchestra played the “Internationale”.

Comrade Toka, lingering at the beginning of his speech on the special circumstances of the time, said: ”The sentence of the extraordinary collegium of the Supreme Court of TNR, confirmed by the presidium of the Small Khural of the republic, over the leaders of sworn enemies of the Tuvan nation, the counter-revolutionary group Churmit_Dazhi-Danchaa, was carried out.” These words of the leader were met with full satisfaction by the participants of the gathering, with mighty clapping of hands of the nation.

After the judicial farce of October 10-13 1938, there was a wave of similar “trials” in the Dzun-Khemchik, Ulug-Khem, and Tes-Khem kozhuuns.

In the pattern of USSR, the “special collegium of MVD TNR” was made legal by a decree of the presidium of Small Khural of TNR.

On April 1, 1939, the “Law of extraordinary judicial collegium MVD TNR” was passed. The third point of this “law” says: The following strict order is being established of extraordinary judicial collegium: neither the accused nor witnesses are allowed to be present at the meeting of the collegium– the final decision will be determined entirely on the basis of evidence and the reports of the immediate investigator”.

The repressions continued during the 40’s and until the late 50’s, and culminated in the “Sut-Khol affair” which was entirely fabricated by the organs of State Security.

Dina Oyun, translated by Heda Jindrak
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Event announces

1) 04.07.2019 - 07.07.2019: XXth Ustuu-Huree festival of live music and belief (Chadan city, Dzun-Khemchik district, Tuva, Russia)

2) 15.08.2019: Tuvan Republic Day (Tuva)

3) 16.08.2019 - 18.08.2019: 3d International Festival 'Khoomei in the center of Asia' (Kyzyl, Tuva, Russia)

4) 01.09.2019: Day of historic Memory and Dignity of Tuvan volumteers who perished in the 2nd World war (Tuva, Russia)

5) 07.09.2019: The Day of Kyzyl city (Kyzyl, Tuva, Russia)


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